Little Mix - Salute (Official Video)
TT was aimed at describing translating process to enable interpreter's training and machine translation and to increase the quality and quantity of T.
The object of the TT is translating process which is an interdisciplinary one.
The subject is the process of translation as a whole, including its results and all factors that influence it.
Translation of poetry, of law documents Each special branch deepens and specifies the general theory to reflect what is common to all types and varieties of T.
There always has to be a need for T.
There are a lot of other kinds: rendering, reported speech, adaptation, précis, abstracting, periphrasis, etc.
Translation proper is aimed at being similar to monolingual communication.
The translator must do his best to be invisible.
T — a general term, and in some cases it may stand for oral interpretation and written interpretation.
Interpretation — oral translation.
Rendition — written translation or oral interpretation.
Translation as a process.
T is a complex dichotomous and cumulative process, it involves a number of activities from other disciplines related to language, writing, linguistic and culture.
In the process of T language and culture undergo certain changes and they can be represented as translator's concept lens.
L exis Lexis G rammar Grammar S tylistic Stylistics C ulture Culture T as communication Motive is the reason of communication and a desire to achieve smth.
But we can't be motivated without purpose aim or goal when one wants to influence smb and one wants them to react in this or that way.
It's not only a communicative purpose.
Purpose is both communicative and beyond communication.
Objective and subjective, with or without emotional colouring.
We describe things to share the impact that we got from the things.
It's meant to convey the impact actions and processes have produced upon us.
It usually means a succession of events or actions.
The motive is to ruin the idea that a person has about some notion viewpointto give argumentation, why you consider this idea to be wrong and supply your own point of view on the subject.
Communication in different life situations.
Any type of communication is not abstract.
Time can be seen as minutes and seconds during which the translator is supposed to transmit the information.
Immediacy of communication: oral interpretation represents face to face C, possessing a number of qualities that might help or hinder the communication.
This means choosing a special kind of words and structures.
It predetermines the choice of words and phrases when you address people occupying a higher rank.
Participant's attitude to each other.
The attitudes might be altogether different.
All the attitudes should be reflected in translation.
The attitude to the subject varies from the absolute indifferent to the key interest.
The participants may be of different temperament.
Text linguistics is useful for the analysis of the translation process and the transfer of meaning from one language to another.
They organise and to some extend create the text.
Cohesion is a surface relation.
It connects actual words, sentences, paragraphs and other expressions that we can see or hear.
In Holliday's and Hassan's model of cohesion reference is used in wild cougar slot game similar but a more restricted way.
Instead of denoting a direct relationship between words and objects reference is limited to the relationship of identity which holds between two linguistic expressions.
She announced her decision this morning.
This delighted her opponents.
In substitution an item is replaced by another item.
You think John already knows?
Ellipsis involves the omission of the item.
Ellipsis is the way of leaving smth unsaid which still can be understood.
It includes some grammatical structures in which the structure itself can fill the slot.
Have you been swimming?
The boundaries between the three devices are not clear-cut: e.
Substitution — Yes, she does.
Intentionality: every text should possess a communicative intention.
How you intend to influence your interlocutor and what mode of speech you're going to use.
Acceptability — the pragmatic function of the text which helps the listener achieve some extralinguistic purposes.
Informativity: the text should contain information.
Sometimes a translator may give all the facts as the basis for new information to be built on.
Situationality: every text should be located in time and space.
If we deal with a technical or scientific text some ideas are being quoted.
Those quotations are intertextual.
Widdowson 1979 — a text cannot be an occurrence since it has no mechanism of its own, but can only be achieved by a human agency.
Hatim defines a text as a stretch of pc slot game material which maps on the surface a set of mutually relevant communicative intentions.
The nature of translation SL — text a nalysis Read more — text restructing transfer The interpreter the translator Translation proper takes place T may be viewed as an interlingual communicative act in which at least 3 participants take place.
The 1st is the sender or source the author of the source language message.
Analysis is made by the 2nd participant — the translator who acts in dual capacity — as the receptor of the 1st language text and then as the sender slot perevod the equivalent target language message.
The 3rd participant is the receptor of the TL message.
If the original was not intended for a foreign language receptor there is one more participant and it is the source language receptor from whom the language was originally produced.
When translator produces an equivalent message in the target language and redirects it to the target language receptor he changes its plane of expression that is linguistic form while its plane of content meaning should remain unchanged.
In fact an equivalent T message should match the original in the plane of content.
It should evoke practically the same response in the TL receptor.
It is the translator's duty to make available to the target language receptor the maximum amount of information carried by linguistic sing including the denotational or referential meaning and the emotive stylistic connotation.
Linguistic and extralinguistic aspects of T.
Some linguists distinguish between what they call T based only on the meanings expressed by linguistic signs and interpretation involving extralinguistic explanation.
In most cases effective translation is impossible without adequate knowledge of the speech act situation and the situation described in the text.
Knowledge of the subject is one of the pre-conditions of an adequate translation.
It's impossible to recreate the sounds of a work composed in one language into another language.
It's impossible to recreate the syntax of a work composed in one language into another language.
It's impossible to recreate the vocabulary of a work composed in one language into another language.
It's impossible to recreate the language and literary culture of a work composed in one language into another language.
It's impossible to recreate the prosody of a work composed in one language into another language.
The basic principal upon which the theory of T should rest is the principal of T-ability.
It is the following dogma: ANYTHING THAT CAN BE SAID IN ONE LANGUAGE CAN BE SAID IN ANOTHER.
There are 2 considerations that account for the necessity of U-ability.
The introduction of this term will cause the translator's arbitrary treatment of the original.
Such permissiveness will lend authority to liberal translation.
In spite of the fact that the number of adherence of T-ability is constantly increasing there are some prominent scholars who are very mush against it.
Specific semantic structure in one language in some cases prevents adequate translation.
Differences in categorisation bring about a great number of culture-bounds units such as: culture specific elements, lexical lacunas and other kinds of equivalent lacking vocabulary.
Some texts can only be perceived when the recipient is aware of associations which can emerge from its previous textual experience.
Thus the texts that contain a lot of allusions are untranslatable.
For the same reason parodies are untranslatable.
It happens in poetry, advertising, political slogans that rely on alliteration and rhyme and they are either untranslatable or use the principle of losses and compensation.
May be she's born with it.
May be it's Maybelline.
God made Adam and Eve and not Adam and Steve — Anti-gay slogan used by Christians who oppose homosexuality on religious grounds.
Categorisation and equivalent lacking vocabulary.
The phenomenon of different semantic segmentation of categorisation acquires special significance when the translator faces the problem of conveying into another language a message which contains mentioning of smth that is unknown to the speakers of that second language, that is outside their experience.
White hair white tie white lie white man white slave white elephant white feather white Christmas delay slot mips in a white sheet These examples don't deny the principle of translatability.
Things are translated with slot perevod help of the principle of loses and compensations.
John Catford suggests that what we have here is smth that can not be translated because of the cultural discrepancy.
Another phenomenon resulting from cultural and consequently semantic non-identity in different languages is that each language is particularly rich in vocabulary for its own area of cultural focus.
Adequacy and precision in translation.
The translator disregards the target culture and peculiarities of the target language and conforms them to the law of the source language.
Adequate doesn't mean precise but it is precise semantically.
Adequate T implies that the source and the target languages are very different.
John Dryden: Metaphrase — the type of translation which renders exactly every single word of the original, tries to preserve the structure of the original, disregarding the laws and the cultural peculiarities of the target language and culture.
Paraphrase seeks to overcome the irrationalities of the source language, but only in a mechanical way.
The mathematical value of a+b 2 is the same as a2+2ab+ b2 Imitation submits to the irrationality of languages.
It presupposes that practically no phrase, sentence, word of art can be produced in another language.
It means that a whole is composed of parts noticeably different from the original ones and yet the whole preserves the imagery, the spirit and the national colouring of the original but it never distorts the language of the target culture.
Adoption — a case of translation used to bring the text very close to the TLC A doesn't care about cultural and language peculiarities of the SLC and gives you another vision of the text from the perspective of the TLC.
Retelling — used when translating prose and poetry.
You retell the content of the text.
When we speak about retelling we never think of preserving the structure or the wording.
Content is the main value.
Interpretation — not only some explanation provided by the translator for the want of a linguistic or cultural equivalents, but also the translator's ideas about what he'she s translating his attitudes to it, which may be given in the footnotes or right in the text, and may be structured as sentences, or paraphrases, or may be shown in the choice of words.
It doesn't distort the TL, it doesn't sound as idiomatic as it should.
Semantic T — complete, based on rendering the contextual meaning of the text: Дам я ему денег.
Communicative T — to produce an adequate impression upon the reader.
It's like functional, but unlike functional it retains the whole text.
But some parts of this text are restructured or rearranged to make the idea more vivid and the imagery more impressive.
It's very far from the original but produces the same impression.
It presupposes compression of the text.
AT to a certain extend violates the main rule any translator has to observe and it is fidelity to the original.
It follows another rule — fidelity to the???.
In any case you simplify the text to make it clear for the reader.
Informative types — rendering into the TL non-literary texts, the main purpose of which is to convey a certain amount of ideas, to inform the reader.
The problems of equivalence and adequacy in T.
E and A are used when we try to render the same meaning factual and emotional in another language.
If we can't find equivalence we produce an adequate text which fulfils the same function.
E of the source and TL items may be found on the level of morpheme, word, phrase, clause, sentence, paragraph and the whole text as a linguistic entity.
Functionally-oriented approach to the theory of equivalence.
Equivalence can be said to exist only between factors equally present in the source text and in the TL text.
Those TL factors that are not contained in the SL can hardly be said to be equivalent because there's no textual basis of comparison.
It doesn't make much sense to speak of equivalence in this cases.
Here adequacy is better term.
Semantic equivalents meanings coincide : Troops were airlifted to the battlefield — Войска были переброшены по воздуху на поле боя.
We use addition but we render semantic meaning.
The sum of semantic components is the same.
Situational equivalents is based between the utterances that differ both in linguistic devices used and in the semantic components expressed, but nevertheless, describe the same extralinguistic situation.
In fact the example given above represent two types of semantic equivalence.
Pragmatic equivalence — a close fit between communicative intent and the receptor's response, is required at all levels of equivalence.
It may sometimes appear alone, without formal or semantic equivalence, as slot perevod this case.
Adequate, literal and free translations.
Adequate T may be defined as determined by semantic and pragmatic equivalence between the original and TL text.
Cases of formal equivalence without semantic or pragmatic equivalence are usually described as literal translation.
Adequate T is guided by the principle of losses and their compensation.
Some marginal elements of information may be lost in T some of them may be compensated for by the use of different devices, techniques and methods on different levels, sometimes in a different portion of a message.
This principle is the main when you translate poetry.
The problems of lexical equivalence and lexical transformations.
It has direct reference to things or phenomena of objective reality, naming abstract notions and processes as well.
It is also necessary to distinguish between primary and secondary referential meaning.
It is a connotative meaning created by connotations raised in the mind of the speaker and reader, it is inherent in a definite group of words even when they are taken out of context.
Stylistic and emotive meaninigs are closely connected, as a rule, stylistically coloured words, i.
click to see more valency is the ability of the word to appear in various combinations.
Lexical valency of correlated words in different languages is not identical.
Words habitually collocated tend to constitute a cliché big mistake, high hopes, heavy sea, heavy rain, a fly stands on the ceiling, trains run.
T of monosemantic words.
Monosemantic words are comparatively few in number.
Monosomy slot perevod typical of numerals, names of months, day of the week and so on.
Render according to the usage of earlier days.
Calorie — калория, equator — экватор different meanings: e.
When we speak about international words they have more or less similar phonetic form and carry the same meaning.
Pseudo-international words differ in meaning from language to language either completely complexion, commutator or partially elevator.
Rendering contextual meaning A contextual meaning arises in the context.
It should not be regarded as part of semantic structure of the word.
Every word possesses an enormous potentiality for generating new contextual meanings and a contextual meaning possible in one language is impossible in another.
In an atomic was women and children will be the first hostage — первыми жертвами в атомной войне будут женщины и дети.
Difference in the transfer of info between languages.
Words may have secondary meanings which are dependent on the context.
Second language will practically always have the equivalent of the primary meaning but the translator should be very careful as far as matching the secondary meaning.
It's the case of metonomy which appears in many languages but not every language will have exact equivalent in the other.
The kettle is boiling but it's the water!
Handsome man but beautiful woman.
A pack of wolves, a school of fish, a flack of birds.
Sometimes a preposition may change the meaning of the whole structure.
Anxious about, anxious for.
It's not enough for the translator to learn isolated words and phrases.
We should know words in contexts and collocations.
Only 4% of language units are phraseological.
Collocations challenges are far greater in number.
So, the translator should learn the most frequently used patterns.
Colour+ emotion: red with anger, blue with cold.
But when we speak about collocations we should assume that they don't coincide in different languages: слабые успехи — poor progress, правильные черты лица — regular features.
Collocations in different languages use different prepositions Confident of himself, jump with joy, meet somebody.
Sometimes a shade of meaning may represent a certain difficulty.
We should do our best do prevent a riot.
I should do my best to prevent my sister from dating this man.
Sometimes every shade of meaning may have a collocation of its own.
He is a free man.
He is free of money.
I'm mad about the movie.
I'm mad of his tone.
The translation of non-equivalents.
The so-called non-equivalents are the words from the SL which either have no equivalent in the TL or no equivalent denotator in the TC.
As the meaning of such words is giochi a slot gratis vague, continue reading can be used in absolutely different contexts and their valency is therefore extremely broad.
A context microcontext is necessary to determine their meaning.
The rain came in torrents.
Not infrequently concretization is resorted to as correlated generalizing words in R and in E have different usage.
There's a tendency in E for differentiation while R uses a more general word.
In some cases although there's an equivalent in the TL at the same level of abstraction generalization may be necessary for purely stylistic reasons.
Since the shooting of Robert Kennedy five days ago about 90 Americans have been shot dead.
G is sometimes used in rendering non-equivalents: summary court is translated as дисциплинарный суд.
It's the squeaky wheel gets the grease.
London in July with the sun for once continually shining had become a mad place, stiffing, enclosed, dry.
The elements of the grammatical structure such as affixes, forms of inflexions and derivation, syntactic patterns, word order, functional words and so on serve to carry meanings which are usually referred to as grammatical structural as different from lexical meanings.
Grammatical forms of different languages only very seldom coincide fully as to the scope of their meaning and function.
As a rule there's only partial equivalence, it means that a meaning of a grammatical form, though seemingly identical in different languages coincide only in 1 part of their meaning and differ in other parts.
The category of gender.
R — 3 genders.
R genders are formally expressed in the following way: 1.
In R a choice between 2 genders is necessary.
In all all languages there exist the so-called grammatical universals that is categories without which no language can function as a means of communication.
They are so-called deep grammatical categories.
They usually express process, quality, relation, doer of the action, goal, instrument, cause-fact source an so on.
Forms in which they are manifested differ.
We resort to it because typical word order in R and E differ.
We use it to preserve theme-rheme relations in both languages.
In R this division of the sentence is usually expressed by the word-order.
What is new is placed at the end of the sentence, theme — at the beginning.
In the E we may on the one hand through the word order, but in this case what in new will come at the beginning of the sentence.
In E theme and rheme relations are also expressed with the help of articles.
A boy came in — вошел мальчик.
The boy came — мальчик вошел.
Within a complex sentence a similar tendency is observed.
In R the first place in occupied by that part of the sentence main or subordinate clause which must logically proceed the second.
In E the position of both clauses though not quite fixed is in most cases governed by purely syntactical rules and namely in most cases the main clause precedes the subordinate one.
They effect practically all types of linguistic units.
It consists of changing the syntactic functions of words in a sentence, check this out process very close to transpositions.
He was met by his sister here его встретила сестра.
I want you to speak E — я хочу, чтобы ты говорил по-английски.
Unification — when one or more sentences are combined into one complex or compound.
Division — splitting a compound sentence into two or more simple ones.
Both E and R have such types of syntactic relation as coordination and subordination.
However, subordination is more characteristic of spoken R and it's often necessary or desirable to replace subordination by coordination while translating from E into R.
In E in many cases words are omitted but they can be easily restored from the context while in R their actual presence in the word is necessary.
Sometimes additions are required to compensate for the lack of grammatical forms in the TL.
Номер вашей заявки Прямо сейчас на почту придет автоматическое письмо-подтверждение с информацией о заявке.
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2. Мне в этой тьме дышать одной Я появилась на чужой планете И что в себе не изменяй
Я считаю, что Вы ошибаетесь. Давайте обсудим.
Поздравляю, эта блестящая мысль придется как раз кстати
Прямо даже не верится Отличные срубы домов
Я могу проконсультировать Вас по этому вопросу. Вместе мы сможем прийти к правильному ответу.
Я думаю, что Вас обманули.
Жаль, что сейчас не могу высказаться - тороплюсь на работу. Вернусь - обязательно выскажу своё мнение по этому вопросу.
Вы талантливый человек
Не понимаю причину такого ажиотажа. Ничего нового и мнения разные.
тема реально старая
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